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  Density Gradient Media Products from Axis-Shield

OptiPrep Lymphoprep Lymphoprep™ Tube Polymorphprep™ Nycodenz® Nycoprep 1.077™ Polysucrose™ 400

 


Much of modern cell and molecular biology relies on the isolation of pure, functionally intact populations of cells,subcellular organelles and macromolecules in high yield and both research and clinical applications provide an impetus for the development of improved separation technology.

The most commonly used method of separating suspensions of mixed populations of biological particles is centrifugation in density gradients - and the choice of medium used to form the gradients is critical for the retention of particles function. Since the early sixties Nycomed have been developing and producing iodinated compounds as X-ray imaging agents. It was recognized early on that these compounds were also well suited to the formation of density gradients and offered new opportunities for improved methods of separating biological particles, especially osmotically-sensitive cells and subcellular organelles. Nycomed has therefore been avtively involved over the last 30 years in the research and development of density gradient media.

Recently, a new chapter opened in Nycomed's history, when in 2000, Axis-Shield took over responsibility for these products. Today, Axis-Shield offers a range of iodinated density gradient media, produced in compliance with FDA and EU cGMP standards and regulatory requirements, which can be used for the purification not only of cells and organelles, but also membrane vesicles, viruses, proteins, nucleic acids and lipoproteins. The use of these compounds as contrast media demanded that they be rigorously tested to ensure their safety and suitability for clinical use. Axis-Shield density gradient media are therefore proven to be non-toxic; have a low osmolality and are sufficiently dense to permit the purification of all types of biological particles.

No other density gradient media conform to such strict clinical criteria.

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Axis-Shield Density Gradient Media Product Overview
.OptiPrep
(click for product page)
.Nycodenz
(click for product page)
.Nycoprep 1.077
(click for product page)
Description
OptiPrep™ is a sterile and endotoxin tested multi-purpose medium based on iodixanol. Unlike any of these other gradient media, iodixanol (as an X-ray imaging agent) has been clinically tested and is manufactured under strict and EU cGMP compliance.
Description
Nycodenz® general purpose medium, available as a powder. Nycodenz® is freely soluble in water.

IMPORTANT NOTICE: Axis-Shield has discontinued production of NycoPrep 1.077. The remaining stock (Lot 12GLS12) has an expiration date of November 2017.

Description

NycoPrep™ 1.077 is a ready-made, sterile and endotoxin tested solution for the purification of  human mononuclear cells.
Composition
Iodixanol: 60% (w/v)
Density: 1.320 +/- 0.001 g/ml (20°)
Osmolality: 170 +/- 15 mOsm
Composition
Water soluble powder: 98% minimum
Density: 2.1 g/ml
Molecular Weight: 821
Composition
Nycodenz®: 14.1% (w/v)
NaCl: 0.44% (w/v)
Tricine/NaOH: 5mM, pH 7.0
Density: 1.077 +/- 0.001 g/ml (20°)
Osmolality: 295 +/- 15 mOsm
optiprep nycodenz nycoprep
OptiPrep™ Standard Documents
Package Insert
MSDS
Product Information Leaflet


Lot Specific Certificates of Analysis,
Certificates of Compliance and ISO Certificates

Nycodenz® Standard Documents
Package Insert
MSDS
Product Information Leaflet


Lot Specific Certificates of Analysis,
Certificates of Compliance and ISO Certificates

Nycoprep™ Standard Documents
Package InsertPackage Insert
MSDS
Product Information Leaflet


Lot Specific Certificates of Analysis, Certificates of Compliance and ISO Certificates
Optiprep™ Order Info
Cat. No. Qty Price
AXS-1114542 1 x 250 ml $163
AXS-1114542-5 5 x 250 ml $779
Nycodenz™ Order Info
Cat. No. Qty Price
AXS-1002424 1 x 500 grams $691
NycoPrep™ 1.077 Order Info
Cat. No. Qty Price
AXS-11145500 4 x 250 ml $199

OptiPrep™ Can Also Be
Ordered Online

Nycodenz© Can Also Be
Ordered Online

NycoPrep™ 1.077 Can Also Be
Ordered Online


Axis-Shield Density Gradient Media Product Overview
.Lymphoprep
(click for product page)
Lymphoprep Tube
(click for product page)
.Polymorphprep
(click for product page)
Description
Lymphoprep™ is a ready-made, sterile and endotoxin tested solution for the isolation of human mononuclear cells. 
Description
Lymphoprep™ Tubes are prefilled test tubes fitted with a plastic filter for the easy and convenient isolation of human mononuclear cells.

Description
Polymorphprep™ is a ready-made, sterile and endotoxin tested solution for the isolation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (granulocytes).
Composition
Sodium diatrizoate: 9.1% (w/v)
Polysaccharide: 5.7% (w/v)
Density: 1.077 +/- 0.001 g/ml (20°)
Osmolality: 290 +/- 15 mOsm

Composition
Sodium diatrizoate: 9.1% (w/v)
Polysaccharide: 5.7% (w/v)
Density: 1.077 +/- 0.001 g/ml (20°)
Osmolality: 290 +/- 15 mOsm
Composition
Sodium diatrizoate: 13.8% (w/v)
Dextran 500: 8.0% (w/v)
Density: 1.113 +/- 0.001 g/ml (20°)
Osmolality: 445 +/- 15 mOsm
lymphoprep lymphoprep polymorphprep
Lymphoprep™ Standard Documents
Package Insert
MSDS
Product Information Leaflet


Lot Specific Certificates of Analysis,
Certificates of Compliance and ISO Certificates

Lymphoprep™ Tube Standard Documents
Package Insert
MSDS
Product Information Leaflet


Lot Specific Certificates of Analysis,
Certificates of Compliance and ISO Certificates

Polymorphprep™ Standard Documents
Package Insert
MSDS
Product Information Leaflet


Lot Specific Certificates of Analysis, Certificates of Compliance and ISO Certificates
Lymphoprep Order Info
Cat. No. Qty Price
AXS-1114544 1 x 250 ml $61
AXS-1114545 4 x 250 ml $152
AXS-1114547 6 x 500 ml $356
AXS-1115757 20 x 250 ml $689
AXS-1115758 12 x 500 ml $659
Lymphoprep™ Tube Order Info
Cat. No. Qty Price
AXS-1019817 2 ml x 30 tubes $207
AXS-1019818 10 ml x 18 tubes $175
Polymorphprep™ Order Info
Cat. No. Qty Price
AXS-1114683 1 x 250 ml $104

Lymphoprep™ Can Also Be
Ordered Online

Lymphoprep™ Tube Can Also Be
Ordered Online

Polymorphprep™ Can Also Be
Ordered Online

 

Axis-Shield Density Gradient Media Product Overview
."Nycograde" Polysucrose 400
(click for product leaflet)
Description
Polysucrose 400™ Polysucrose 400™ is a synthetic high molecular weight polymer made by co-polymerization of sucrose and epichlorohydrin. The molecules have branched structure with a high content of hydroxyl groups giving a good solubility in aqueous media. The product is similar to Ficoll 400® from GE Biosciences. Polysucrose 400 is readily soluble in aqueous solutions when added slowly with stirring. Concentratations up to 50% (w/v) can easily be prepared.
Composition
copolymer of sucrose and epichlorohydrin
avg MW: 450,000 ± 100,000
Properties
The reactivity and stability of Polysucrose™ 400 are determined by its hydroxyl groups and the glycosidic bonds in the sucrose residues. Polysucrose™ is stable in alkaline and neutral solutions. At pH values lower than 3, it is rapidly hydrolyzed, especially at elevated temperatures. In neutral solutions, Polysucrose™ 400 can be sterilized by autoclaving at 1100C for 30 minutes without any degradation. Polysucrose™ 400 is readily soluble in aqueous solutions when added slowly to the liquid with constant stirring. Concentrations up to 50% (w/v) can easily be obtained.
Polysucrose 400™ Standard Documents
MSDS
Product Information Leaflet
Polysucrose 400™ Order Info
Cat. No. Qty Price
AXS-1026582 1 x 500g please inquire
AXS-1006031 1 x 5kg please inquire
AXS-1017120 1 x 25kg please inquire
   
     


Additional Product Details    
OptiPrep™    

OptiPrep™ is a sterile endotoxin tested solution of 60% iodixanol in water with a density of 1.32 g/ml.

  • OptiPrep™ is a ready-made, sterile and endotoxin tested solution with the following specifications:
    Iodixanol: 60% (w/v)
    Density: 1.320 ± 0.001 g/ml
    Osmolality: approx. 170 mOsm
    Endotoxins: < 1.0 EU/ml
  • Iodixanol was developed as an X-ray contrast medium and has therefore been subjected to rigorous clinical testing.
  • Iodixanol is non-ionic, non-toxic to cells and metabolically inert.
  • Iodixanol is approximately a dimer of Nycodenz® and its biological and physicochemical properties are very similar. However, iodixanol solutions have osmolalities approximately half that of Nycodenz® solutions of the same density. Iodixanol solutions can be made isoosmotic at all densities and OptiPrep™ can be added directly to a cell or organelle suspension without changing its osmolality, thus facilitating their purification in a flotation gradient.
  • Because of its higher molecular mass, iodixanol forms self-generated gradients more quickly than Nycodenz®. Mammalian and non-mammalian cells purified in iodixanol gradients have high viability.
  • Organelles and membrane vesicles are effectively fractionated in either pre-formed or self-generated gradients.
  • Viruses purified in iodixanol gradients show an infectivity: particle ratio at least 100x higher than those from CsCl gradients.
  • Protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid complexes are better preserved in iodixanol than in sucrose or glycerol gradients.
  • Plasma lipoproteins analyzed in self-generated gradients within 4h.
  • Each batch of OptiPrep™ is checked for endotoxin by the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. Our goal is to produce batches with an endotoxin level lower or equal to 0.13 EU/ml. For every batch produced a Certificate of Analysis showing the actual values of density and endotoxin levels is made available at www.axis-shield-density-gradientmedia.com.
  • OptiPrep™ sterility is claimed according to Ph.Eur. OptiPrep™ is manufactured, packed and released in compliance with:
    1. Current EU Guide to Good Manufacturing Practice
    2. Fresenius Kabi AS Quality System
    3. Fresenius Kabi AS Manufacturing Licence

 

   
Nycodenz®    

Nycodenz® is an off-white powder, freely soluble in water. Solutions up to 80% (v/w) with a density of 1.426 g/ml can be prepared. Nycodenz® was originally developed as an X-ray contrast medium and has therefore been subjected to rigorous clinical testing. Nycodenz® can be used for the isolation of cells, subcellular organelles and membranes, macromolecules and viruses.

  • Nycodenz® is non-ionic, non-toxic to cells and metabolically inert.
  • Nycodenz® forms true solutions. It is therefore easy to remove the medium from the cells after fractionation.
  • Nycodenz® is resistant to bacterial degradation.
  • Nycodenz® solutions can be autoclaved.
  • Nycodenz® is the trademark name for iohexol, whose systematic name is 5-(N-2,3-dihydroxypropylacetamido) 2,4,6-tri-iodo-N-N'-bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)isophthalamide. It has a molecular weight of 821. The chemical properties and stability of Nycodenz® are related to its structure. Its high density derives from the presence of a substituted triiodobenzene ring linked to a number of hydrophilic groups which are responsible for the high water solubility of Nycodenz®. It is a non-ionic derivative of metrizoic acid; the carboxyl group present in metrizoic acid is linked to the amine group of 3-amino-1,2- propanediol. The dihydroxypropylacetamido side chain is responsible for the very low toxicity of Nycodenz® compared to metrizamide. The iodinated aromatic nucleus absorbs strongly in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum with an absorbtion maximum of 244 nm.
  • Gradients of Nycodenz® can be generated by:
    • Diffusion of a discontinuous gradient; simple preparation within 45 minutes.
    • Tilted tube rotation (Gradient Master™).
    • Two-chamber gradient maker.
    • Freezing/thawing of a solution of uniform density.
    • Centrifugation (self-generated gradient).
  • The density of Nycodenz® in solution can be determined by measuring the refractive index or it can be calculated from absorbance measurements
  • Nycodenz® is a non-colloidal medium therefore the distribution of cells in gradients can be determined using a haemocytometer, electronic particle counter or by light scattering measurements using a spectrophotometer.
  • Nycodenz® does not interfere with the orcinol and diphenylamine reactions for the estimation of nucleic acids nor with the very sensitive dye binding assays for protein and DNA.
  • Polysaccharides and sugars can be determined in the presence of Nycodenz® using the phenol/H2SO4 assay.
  • Fluorimetric assays of nucleic acids and proteins can also be carried out in the presence of Nycodenz®.
  • Nycodenz® does not interfere with most assays for the marker enzymes of subcellular components, also commercial scintillants are compatible with Nycodenz®.
  • Nycodenz® can be removed from samples by dialysis, ultrafiltration or gel filtration.
  • Cells, subcellular organelles and other particulate matter can be isolated from Nycodenz ® by centrifugation without the risk of contaminating the pellet with Nycodenz®.
  • Nycodenz® is supplied as a powder
   
     
NycoPrep™ 1.077    

In 1983 Dr. Arne Bøyum devised a new separation medium for the density barrier isolation of human mononuclear cells. This medium is based on Nycodenz®, a triiodinated derivative of benzoic acid with three aliphatic, highly hydrophilic side chains with a molecular weight of 82. In NycoPrep™ 1.077, Nycodenz® replaces sodium diatrizoate of the Ficoll/Hypaque method and a buffered sodium chloride solution maintains the correct osmotic environment. Importantly no Ficoll or other polysaccharide is added.

  • The components of NycoPrep™ 1.077 are unlikely to mask receptors or other marker molecules on the surface of lymphocytes.
  • Mitogen stimulation of the mononuclear cells recovered is found to give results similar to or better than, cells isolated by the Ficoll/Hypaque method.
  • Using NycoPrep™ 1.077, erythrocytes do not form such a compact pellet and if resuspended, appear as single, unclumped cells of good morphological appearance.
  • To obtain the maximum yield it is important that the blood sample is diluted 1:1 with physiological saline before being applied to the NycoPrep™ 1.077.
  • The contamination of erythrocytes in the mononuclear cell suspension is usually between 3-10% of the total cell number. Some immature PMNs may band with the lymphocytes during intense immunosuppressive therapy. It is essential to remove most of the platelets from mononuclear cell preparations in order to avoid inhibition in the cytotoxicity test.
  • NycoPrep™ 1.077 is a ready-made, sterile and endotoxin tested solution with the following specifications:
    • Nycodenz: 14.1% (w/v)
    • NaCl: 0.44% (w/v) Tricine/NaOH, pH 7.0: 5mM
    • Density: 1.077 ± 0.001 g/ml
    • Osmolality: 295 ± 15 mOsm
    • Endotoxins: < 1.0 EU/ml
      • Each batch of NycoPrep 1.077™ is checked on the level of endotoxins using a specific LAL test. Axis-Shield's goal is to produce batches with an endotoxin level lower or equal to 0.13 EU/ml.
      • Sterility is claimed according to Ph.Eur.
      • NycoPrep™ 1.077 is manufactured, packed and released in compliance with:
        • 1. Current EU Guide to Good Manufacturing Practice
        • 2. Fresenius Kabi AS Quality System
        • 3. Fresenius Kabi AS Manufacturing Licence
    • For every lot, a Certificate of Analysis showing the actual values of density, osmolality and endotoxins is made available at www.axis-shield-density-gradient -media.com.
  • NycoPrep™ 1.077 can be used for the preparation of pure lymphocyte suspensions for tissue typing, antilymphocyte sera and immunological research. The described method is rapid, simple and reliable and gives excellent results with blood samples from normal individuals and patients. Bøyum, A. (1983) In Iodinated Gradient Media, a practical approach (ed. D. Rickwood). 147-171, IRL Press.

Ficoll is a trademark of GE Healthcare Companies.

   
     
Lymphoprep™    

A simple and effective method for the isolation of mononuclear cells from human blood was reported by Dr. Arne Bøyum in 1968. For more than 35 years a commercial medium known as Lymphoprep™ has been widely used for isolating these cells. Mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) have a lower buoyant density than the erythrocytes and the polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes (granulocytes). The vast majority of mononuclear cells have densities below 1.077 g/ml. These cells can therefore be isolated by centrifugation on an isoosmotic medium with a density of 1.077 g/ml, which allows the erythrocytes and the PMNs to sediment through the medium while retaining the mononuclear cells at the sample/medium interface.
The described method is rapid, simple and reliable and gives excellent results with blood samples from normal individuals and patients. To obtain the maximum yield it is important that the blood sample is diluted 1:1 with physiological saline before being applied to the Lymphoprep™ The contamination of erythrocytes in the mononuclear cell suspension is usually between 3-10% of the total cell number. Some immature PMNs may band with the lymphocytes during intense immunosuppressive therapy. It is essential to remove most of the platelets from mononuclear cell preparations in order to avoid inhibition in the cytotoxicity test.

  • Lymphoprep™ has the same specifications as the expensive PLUS or PREMIUM media from other manufacturers. Lymphoprep™ is a ready-made, sterile and endotoxin tested solution with the following specifications:
    • Sodium diatrizoate: 9.1% (w/v)
    • Polysaccharide: 5.7% (w/v)
    • Density: 1.077 ± 0.001 g/ml
    • Osmolality: 290 ± 15 mOsm
    • Endotoxins: < 1.0 EU/ml
      • Each batch of Lymphoprep™ is checked on the level of endotoxins using a specific LAL test. Axis-Shield's goal is to produce batches with an endotoxin level lower or equal to 0.13 EU/ml.
      • Sterility is claimed according to Ph.Eur.
      • Lymphoprep™ is manufactured, packed and released in compliance with:
        • 1. Current EU Guide to Good Manufacturing Practice
        • 2. Fresenius Kabi AS Quality System
        • 3. Fresenius Kabi AS Manufacturing Licence
    • For every lot, a Certificate of Analysis showing the actual values of density, osmolality and endotoxins is made available at www.axis-shield-density-gradient -media.com.
  • Lymphoprep™ can be used for the preparation of pure lymphocyte suspensions for tissue typing, antilymphocyte sera and immunological research. Thorsby and Brattelie used this technique with only slight modifications in the preparation of pure lymphocyte suspensions for cytotoxicity tests and lymphocyte cultures.
   
     
Lymphoprep™ Tube    

The success of the standard method for isolation mononuclear cells using Lymphoprep™ depends to a large extent on the careful layering of the diluted blood sample on top of the centrifugation medium to maintain a sharp interface between the two layers. This procedure requires some practise and can be time-consuming with large numbers of samples.

Lymphoprep™ Tube is a sterile tube in which the Lymphoprep ™ is contained below a plastic filter disc. This allows blood to be poured simply and directly into the tube, the disc preventing any mixing with the separation medium. The erythrocytes displace the Lymphoprep™ upwards to allow mononuclear cells to band above the filter disc.

Lymphoprep™ Tube can be used for the preparation of pure lymphocyte suspensions for tissue typing, antilymphocyte sera and immunological research. Thorsby and Brattelie used this technique with only slight modifications in the preparation of pure lymphocyte suspensions for cytotoxicity tests and lymphocyte cultures.

Lymphoprep™ Tube is manufactured to the same rigourous specifications as given above for Lymphoprep™.

   
     
Polymorphprep™    

With the exception of the basophils, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) have a much greater buoyant density than the mononuclear cells, > 1.085 g/ml. Unfortunately, the buoyant density of the erythrocytes tends to be from 1.09-1.11 g/ml, this makes a separation from whole blood using a density barrier similar to that used for mononuclear cells, more difficult.

The high osmolality of Polymorphprep™ causes erythrocytes to lose water and shrink, thus increasing their effective buoyant densities. This allows the dextran aggregated erythrocytes to sediment rapidly through the dense medium. Because the osmotic gradient between the medium and the erythrocytes declines as the cells sediment further into the medium (ie the water loss from the erythrocytes is greatest at the top of the Polymorphprep™ and progressively decreases as they sediment further) – a gradient of diatrizoate forms within the density barrier. The PMNs band within this density gradient while the mononuclear cells remain at the sample/medium interface.

The method is effective only with whole undiluted blood not with a leukocyte-rich fraction.

The temperature is important to obtain optimal results, as changes in temperature effect the density and viscosity of the Polymorphprep™ solution. The temperature of the blood sample and the medium should be kept between 18 -22oC. Analysis of the top and bottom bands from the Polymorphprep ™ separation using a Coulter STKR Cell Analyzer is shown in the figure beneath. The analyzer determines the number of cells in the sample (ordinate) as a function of cell volume (abscissa). Relative cell number is the number of cells of a particular volume expressed as a fraction of the total in each sample. The top band contains only lymphocytes (40-80 fl) and monocytes (80-130 fl); all of the PMNs (150-320 fl) are in the bottom band which has negligible contamination from mononuclear cells. Contamination of the PMN band by erythrocytes is between 2-6% of the total cell number.

pmprep

Figure 1. Coulter STKR analysis of the two bands from a Polymorphprep
™ separation. The upper (green) band contains all of the mononuclear
cells (MC); the lower (red) band contains PMNs and less than 2% MCs.

  • Polymorphprep™ is a ready-made, sterile and endotoxin tested solution with the following specifications:
    • Sodium diatrizoate: 13.8% (w/v)
    • Dextran 500: 8.0% (w/v)
    • Density: 1.113 ± 0.001 g/ml
    • Osmolality: 445 ± 15 mOsm
    • Endotoxins: < 1.0 EU/ml Each batch of Polymorphprep™ is checked on the level of endotoxins using a specific LAL test. Our goal is to produce batches with an endotoxin level lower or equal to 0.13 EU/ml.
   
     
Polysucrose 400™    

Polysucrose™ 400 is a synthetic high molecular weight polymer made by the copolymerization of sucrose and epichlorohydrin. The molecules have a branched structure with a high content of hydroxyl groups giving a good solubility in aqueous solutions. The product is similar to Ficoll® 400.

  • The reactivity and stability of Polysucrose™ 400 are determined by its hydroxyl groups and the glycosidic bonds in the sucrose residues. Polysucrose™ is stable in alkaline and neutral solutions. At pH values lower than 3, it is rapidly hydrolyzed, especially at elevated temperatures.
  • In neutral solutions, Polysucrose™ 400 can be sterilized by autoclaving at 110 degrees C for 30 minutes without any degradation.
  • Concentrations up to 50% (w/v) can easily be obtained. Polysucrose™ 400 is readily soluble in aqueous solutions when added slowly to the liquid with constant stirring.
  • Using sodium metrizoate and a polysaccharide Bøyum (1968) developed a one-step centrifugal technique for isolation of lymphocytes (Lymphoprep™). In this method the polysaccharide aggregates the erythrocytes, thereby increasing their sedimentation rate. Polysucrose ™ 400 has also been used as a density gradient medium for the purification of other cells and in membrane fractionation.
  • Non-ionic high molecular weight solutes such as polysucrose are required for a number of other research scenarios.
  • Polysucrose™ 400 may be used as a stabilizing agent in protein solutions.
  • Polysucrose™ 400 can function as an immunologically inert carrier for low molecular weight haptens in immunological studies.
  • Polysucrose™ 400 is also used to reduce non-specific binding of labelled probes to nitrocellulose membranes during nucleic acid hybridization. It also simplifies the loading of nucleic acids into the sample wells of agarose gels for electrophoresis.

Technical data:

  • Specific optical rotation: (alpha)subscript D,20: 53 -59 degrees
  • Intrinsic viscosity (20 degrees C): 0.14 -0.20
  • Average molecular weight (Mw): 450,000 ± 100,000
  • Mw distribution by GPC: conforms to standard
  • Loss on drying: <5.0%
  • pH (10% w/v aqueous solution): 7.0 -9.0
  • Sulphated ash: <0.3%
  • Content of chloride: <500 ppm
  • Microbiological contamination: <100 CFU/g; <10 yeasts and mould/gram
   
Ficoll is a trademark of GE Healthcare Companies.
   
   
 
   
   
Density Gradient Media Product Pages  
 
   
Density Gradient Information Center  
   
Brochures - Axis-Shield  

General and specific brochures on centrifugal separation, density gradient handling, Axis-Shield media products, and their use in the lab.

 
   
Application Sheets - Optiprep™/ Nycodenz®  
More than 50 detailed discussions covering most popular applications. Filled with tips and tricks for:  
  • Cells
  • Membranes, Organelles, Subcellular Compartments
  • Viruses
 
   
Mini-Reviews - Axis-Shield selected topics  
  • Cells
  • Membranes, Organelles, Subcellular Compartments
  • Viruses
 
   
Slide Shows - Axis-Shield  
Fully illustrated educational presentations covering a variety of density gradient media topics.  
   
Product Certificates - Axis-Shield  
  • Lot-specific certificates of analysis
  • Certificates of manufacturing compliance
  • ISO certifications